Leukogram: what is it, normal values ​​and what is it for

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The leukogram is a part of the blood test that consists of evaluating the leukocytes, also known as white blood cells, which are the cells responsible for the defense of the organism. This exam indicates the number of neutrophils, en-band or segmented, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils present in the blood.

The increased values ​​of leukocytes, known as leukocytosis, may occur due to infections or blood disorders, such as leukemia, for example. On the contrary, known as leukopenia, it can be caused by drugs or chemotherapy.

Both leukopenia and leukocytosis must be analyzed by a general practitioner or hematologist, so that the most appropriate treatment is established according to the cause of its origin. Find out more about leukocytes.

Normal leukogram values

The reference values ​​of the leukogram vary according to the age of the person and the laboratory, being the normal values:

age Leukocytes or total white blood cells neutrophils lymphocytes
1st day of life 9,000 to 30,000/mm³ 6,000 to 26,000/mm³ 2,000 to 11,000/mm³
Between 6 months and 2 years of age 6,000 to 17, 500/mm³ 1,500 to 8,500/mm³ 3,000 to 9,500/mm³
Between 2 and 3 years of age 5,500 to 15,500/mm³ 1,500 to 8,500/mm³ 2,000 to 8,000/mm³
Between 3 and 6 years old 5,000 to 14,500/mm³ 1,500 to 8,000/mm³ 1,500 to 7,000/mm³
Between 6 and 13 years old 5,000 to 13,000/mm³ 1800 to 8000/mm³ 1,200 to 6,000/mm³
Adults 4,500 to 11,000/mm³ 1,800 to 7,700/mm³ 1,000 to 3,900/mm³

Leukopenia occurs when leukocytes are lower than 4,500/mm³ in adults and leukocytosis occurs when they are higher than 11,000/mm³, which is a higher value than the reference values.

If a leukogram has been performed recently and you want to know the possible cause of the increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes, enter your data below:

what is it for

The leukogram is requested to evaluate the body’s defense system and, in this way, determine whether there is any inflammation or infection. This exam is part of the hematology and is carried out from a blood sample taken in the laboratory. It is not necessary to be in days to carry out this task, only when requested in conjunction with other tests, such as blood glucose and cholesterol, for example. Find out what it is for and how a hematology is performed.

The body’s defense cells are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils, which are responsible for different functions in the body, such as:

  • Neutrophils: They are the most abundant blood cells in the defense system, being responsible for fighting infections, and may be indicative of bacterial infection when the values ​​are increased. The neutrophils in the band are young (inmature) neutrophils that are normally found in the blood when there are infections in the acute phase. The segmented neutrophils are the mature ones and the ones that are more encuentran en la sangre;
  • Lymphocytes: the lymphocytes are responsible for fighting viruses and tumors and the production of antibodies. When they are increased, it may indicate a viral infection, HIV, leukemia or rejection of a transplanted organ, for example
  • Monocytes: They are the defense cells responsible for phagocytosing invading microorganisms, being also called macrophages. Acts against viruses and bacteria without distinction;
  • Eosinophils: are activated defense cells in cases of allergy or parasitic infections;
  • Basophils: defense cells are activated in case of chronic inflammation or prolonged allergy and, under normal conditions, it is only reflected in the leukogram up to 1%.

Based on the results of the leukogram and other laboratory tests, the doctor can correlate them with the clinical history of the patient and establish the diagnosis and treatment, if necessary.

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Consult a Doctor | Translated by User2937

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