6 medicines for high blood pressure
Medicines for blood pressure, also called antihypertensive drugs, are indicated to lower blood pressure and keep it under control, with values below 140/90 mm Hg, since high blood pressure can cause complications such as infarction, heart failure, angina, kidney problems stroke, for example.
There are a variety of medications that can be used to treat high blood pressure, such as diuretics, adrenergic blockers or vasodilators, for example, which must be indicated by the cardiologist individually according to the severity of the illness or risk of complications. In some cases, these drugs can be used in combination.
Medications for hypertension must always be prescribed by the cardiologist and medical follow-up must be carried out frequently to assess whether the treatment is reducing blood pressure figures. In addition, the doctor should also indicate the reduction of salt consumption and the practice of physical exercise, such as walking, for example, at least 3 times a week to help reduce high values.
The main classes of medication for high blood pressure that the cardiologist can recommend are:
Diuretics are medicines that act on the kidney, increasing the elimination of salt by the urinary tract, and that the salt contains a lot of sodium that causes water retention in the body. When the salt is eliminated, it also contains water that is in the blood, reducing the amount of liquid in the veins and arteries, which reduces blood pressure and swelling caused by hypertension.
There are several classes of diuretics, the main ones being chlorthalidone, hydrochlorothiazide, indapamide, furosemide, bumetanide, spironolactone or amiloride, which should be prescribed by a doctor.
In some cases, these diuretics can be used together with other drugs for high blood pressure, depending on the evaluation and indication of the doctor.
2. Centrally acting alpha-agonists
The centrally acting alpha-agonist drugs act directly on the brain in the areas that control blood pressure, promoting the relaxation of blood vessels, allowing blood to circulate more easily, which reduces high blood pressure.
The main drugs of this class of antihypertensive drugs are methyldopa, clonidine, and rilmenidine.
3. Adrenergic Blockers
Adrenergic blockers include drug classes for high blood pressure, beta-blockers such as propranolol, atenolol, carvedilol, metoprolol and nebivolol, and alpha-blockers such as doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin.
Blockers are usually indicated in young people what they have had a heart attack, and they help the heart to bark more slowly and with less force, which lowers blood pressure. In addition, it also helps to open the veins and arteries to improve the blood flow.
Alphablockers help to reduce blood pressure because they prevent the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles of the walls of the arteries and veins, causing blood vessels to relax, improving blood flow in the body and reducing blood pressure.
4. Direct vasodilators
Direct vasodilators promote the relaxation of blood vessels, preventing them from constricting, making the blood circulate more easily through the vessels and that the heart does not need to have much strength to pump the blood to the body, which is why they help to reduce it. blood pressure. The main vasodilators indicated by doctors are hydralazine and minoxidil.
Minoxidil is used orally for the treatment of high blood pressure, which does not improve with other medications and is generally used together with a diuretic or a beta-blocker. This medication has as a side effect to increase the amount of hair on the body, which is why it is also indicated by dermatologists for the treatment of hair loss and baldness, however, in these cases, the use is topical, and should be used. minoxidil solution directly on the scalp.
5. Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers reduce blood pressure because they prevent calcium from entering the cells of the heart and arteries, allowing blood vessels to relax and distend, which improves blood flow in the body and reduces effort del corazón to pump blood.
The main antihypertensive drugs of this class are amlodipine, nifedipine, nitrendipine, manidipine, lercanidipine, levanlodipine, lacidipine, isradipine, nisoldipine and nimodipine.
Some calcium channel blockers, such as verapamil and diltiazem, have the benefit of decreasing heart rate, which can reduce further blood pressure, relieve pain and control irregular heart beats.
6. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme prevent the production of angiotensin, a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow and increases blood pressure, forcing the heart to work harder. By preventing the production of this hormone, antihypertensive drugs help to relax veins and arteries, reducing blood pressure.
The main inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme are captopril, enalapril, ramipril and lisinopril, which can cause dry cough as a side effect.
Another class of drugs with effects similar to these, but with dry symptoms as an adverse effect, are angiotensin receptor antagonists, which reduce blood pressure and prevent the effects of the hormone angiotensin, and include the drugs losartán, valsartan, candesartán and telmisartán.
The secondary effects of antihypertensive drugs are seas, fluid retention, changes in heart rate, headache, vomiting, nausea, sweating or sexual impotence. Before noticing any of these effects, the person must speak with the doctor to evaluate the possibility of reducing the dose of the medication and even if it was necessary to change it for another.
Medications for high blood pressure without weight gain, although some can cause fluid retention, and in these cases the cardiologist may indicate the use of diuretics.
Can I take several medications to lower blood pressure?
To keep blood pressure under control, you can use several medications, from 2 to 3 combined at the same time, which can be of the same class or different classes, especially when the blood pressure is above 160/90 mmHg and is not stabilizes.
In less severe cases, the treatment is carried out with the use of only one drug, especially when the values in the sub-event are greater than the value mentioned above. However, the use of antihypertensive drugs should always be guided by the cardiologist to avoid drug interactions.
When should I stop the antihypertensive?
The use of medication to control pressure in most cases is maintained throughout life, because hypertension is a chronic illness and treatment is important to reduce the risk of complications such as infarction, stroke, aneurysm or renal failure, for example.
These medicines must be taken according to the medical prescription of the cardiologist, who must also guide to take control of the blood pressure values, writing them down in a booklet whenever they are taken at home.
Find out how to measure blood pressure at home.
Home remedies for hypertension
An excellent home remedy for high blood pressure is the orange juice, since the orange is rich in potassium that helps to reduce blood pressure, in addition to having antioxidants that help keep blood vessels healthy and prevent diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart attack or stroke, for example. However, you should avoid the grapefruit yoke or grapefruit During treatment with antihypertensive drugs, this fruit can reduce the activity of the enzyme responsible for metabolizing these drugs, which can cause an increase in collateral effects or intoxication.
Another natural remedy for high blood pressure is the yoke of lemon with a hand. For that, just express 3 lemons and grind 2 pieces of garlic. Next, mix these ingredients with 1 vase of water and liquefy. To sweeten the taste and drink during the day, between meals. Find out more home remedies to lower blood pressure.
Watch the following video with nutritionist Tatiana Zanin with advice on how to control high blood pressure:
Medicines for hypertension in embarazo
Medications for hypertension in embarazo, called preeclampsia that can be prescribed by the cardiologist are methyldopa or hydralazine.
If the embarazada was already hypertensive before becoming embarassed, the cardiologist will have to change the medication previously used, for medications that can be used during pregnancy that cause problems with the baby.
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