Staphylococcus (Staphylococcus): what are they, main species and symptoms
Staphylococcus, of the genus Staphylococcus, They correspond to a group of gram-positive bacteria that have a rounded shape and are grouped in racemes, similar to grape seeds.
These bacteria are naturally present in people without any sign of illness. However, when the immune system is poorly developed, as in the case of newborns, or is weakened due to chemotherapy treatment or advanced age, for example, the bacteria of the genus of the genus Staphylococcus they can enter the organism and cause the illness.
Staphylococcus are small and mobile bacteria arranged in racemes that can be found naturally in people, especially in skin and mucous membranes, without causing any type of illness. A good part of the staphylococcal species are facultative anaerobes, es decir, they are able to grow in an environment with the oxygen.
The species of Staphylococcus They can be classified into one of the groups according to the presence or absence of the coagulase enzyme. In this way, the species that possess the enzyme are called positive coagulase, since they Staphylococcus aureus the only species of this group, and the species that do not have the negative coagulase calls, whose main species are Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
1. Staphylococcus aureus
He Staphylococcus aureus, O S. aureus, It is a species of staphylococcus that is normally found on the skin and on the mucous membranes of people, mainly in the mouth and nose, without causing illness. However, when the immune system is weakened, it S. aureus it can enter the body and cause infections that can be mild, such as folliculitis; the serious ones, like la sepsis, for example, las cuales pueden poner en riesgo la vida de la persona.
This bacterium can also be easily found in hospital environments, and can cause serious infections that are difficult to treat due to the acquired resistance of the microorganism to various antibiotics.
He Staphylococcus aureus It can get into the body through infections or sores, especially in the case of hospitalized people, in those who use injectable drugs or need to take penicillin injections regularly, for example, but it can also be transmitted from person to person through from direct contact or through small drops present in the air, coming from coughing or sneezing.
Identification of infection by Staphylococcus aureus It is carried out by means of microbiological tests that can be carried out with any secretion, if there is a herida, urine, saliva or blood. Similarly, the identification of this microorganism can be carried out by means of coagulase, as it is the only species of Staphylococcus that poses this enzyme, calling itself, therefore, positive coagulase.
Main symptoms: the symptoms of infection by S. aureus The agreement varies with the type of infection, the form of contagion and the condition of the person. So, there may be pain, reddening and swelling in the skin, when the bacteria proliferates in the skin; high fever, muscle pain, headache and general malaise, which is usually indicative of the bacteria being present in the blood.
How the treatment is carried out: the treatment of infection by Staphylococcus aureus It varies according to your antibiotic sensitivity profile, which can vary depending on the person and the hospital in which they meet, if this was the case. Asimismo, the doctor takes into account the health status of the patient and the symptoms presented, apart from other infections that may exist. Normally, the doctor recommends the use of Methicillin, Vancomycin or Oxacillin for 7 to 10 days.
two. Staphylococcus epidermidis
He Staphylococcus epidermidis, O S. epidermidisso like him S. aureus, is normally present in the skin without causing any type of infection. However, he S. epidermidis It can be considered opportunistic, as it is capable of causing illness when the immune system is weakened or developed, as in the case of newborn babies, for example.
He S. epidermidis it is one of the main microorganisms isolated in hospitalized patients, it is naturally in the skin, and its isolation is considered as contamination of the sample. However, he S. epidermidis it has been related to a large number of infections in hospital environments due to its ability to colonize intravascular devices, large heritables, prostheses and heart valves, and can be associated with sepsis and endocarditis, for example.
The ability to colonize medical devices makes this microorganism resistant to several antibiotics, which can make the treatment of infection more complicated and the person’s life at risk.
Confirmation of infection by S. epidermidis occurs when the bad blood cultures are positive for this microorganism. Asimism, it is possible to differentiate it S. aureus del S. epidermidis by means of la prueba de la coagulasa, in there that el S. epidermidis it does not have the enzyme, being called negative coagulase.
Main symptoms: the symptoms of infection by S. epidermidis usually arise when the bacteria is found in the blood stream, being able to have high fever, headache, malaise, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing and decrease in blood pressure, for example.
How the treatment is carried out: the treatment of infection by S. epidermidis It varies according to the type of infection and the characteristics of the isolated microorganism. In case the infection is related to the colonization of medical devices, for example, the change of the device is indicated, eliminating the bacteria.
When the infection is confirmed, the doctor may also recommend the use of antibiotics, such as Vancomycin and Rifampicin, for example.
3. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
He Staphylococcus saprophyticus, O S. saprophyticus, so like him S. epidermidis, It is considered a negative coagulase staphylococcus, which is why it would be necessary to carry out other exams to differentiate these from the species, such as, for example, the prevention of novobiocin, which is an antibiotic for which it S. saprophyticus normally presents resistance and it S. epidermidis presents sensitivity.
This bacteria can be found naturally in the skin and in the genital region without causing any type of symptoms. However, when there is an imbalance in the microbiota of the genital region, the S. saprophyticus It can cause urinary tract infection, mainly in women, because this bacteria is able to adhere to the cells of the urinary system in women in a reproductive age.
Main symptoms: the symptoms of infection by S. saprophyticus are the misms of a urinary infection, presenting with pain and difficulty to urinate, turbidity, feeling of not being able to completely empty the bladder and persistent low fever.
How the treatment is carried out:the treatment of infection by S. saprophyticus It is carried out using antibiotics, such as Trimethoprim. However, the treatment with antibiotics should only be indicated by the doctor in the presence of symptoms, otherwise it may favor the emergence of resistant bacteria.
4. STaphylococcus haemolyticus
He S. haemolyticus, It also belongs to the classification of coagulase-negative staphylococcus, naturally found in the skin, without representing a risk for the person. However, when you have a weakened immune system, as in cases of infections that require hospitalization, the S. haemolyticus it can develop abnormally causing complications. The way in which this staphylococcus produces an infection is due, in most cases, to contamination of materials such as pacemakers, catheter for peritoneal dialysis, heart valve prosthesis, venous catheters, for example.
In some cases, as in the prothesis, it S. haemolyticus, It can generate a protective layer that prevents antibiotics that are used more frequently from acting on it, causing the infection to take longer to be treated, which can cause complications in the short term. This microorganism is responsible for diabetic foot infection, in cardiac and thoracic surgical interventions.
Due to the fact that contamination of materials is the most frequent, the treatment focuses on removing the device, the material possibly infected and the doctor will evaluate a possible change. However, due to the risk and difficulty of the procedure, you can opt for the use of antibiotics and consider a second intervention in the future.
Main symptoms: the symptoms of infection by S. haemolyticus It will depend on the infected prosthetic material, which may cause pus discharge, swelling, pain, increased sensitivity in the place where the prosthesis and fever are found.
How the treatment is carried out:the treatment of infection by S. haemolyticus It is performed using antibiotics to which there is no resistance to the bacteria, es decir, drugs that have an antibiotic effect on this microorganism, such as linezolid and rifampicin, in addition to trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin, which are evaluated by the doctor to indicate the adequate dose depending on the severity.
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