Puberty: what is it, characteristics and changes that occur
Puberty corresponds to the period of physiological and biological changes in the body that marks the transition from childhood to adolescence. The changes start to be evident from 12 years onwards, but they can vary according to family history and the child’s eating habits, for example.
In addition to the physical changes evident in this period, the person can have large mood swings due to the increase in the production of hormones, such as testosterone, in the case of children, and estrogen, in the case of children.
In case the changes are observed or not until the 13 years of age, it is advisable to consult a doctor so that the cause can be investigated and the treatment started, which is normally carried out through hormone replacement. Know about testosterone and its normal values.
Main features and body changes
The age in which the first signs of puberty begin can vary between children and children, and can occur in children between 8 and 13 years, and in children between 9 and 14 years.
In las niñas, the most evident sign of the beginning of puberty is the menarche, which is the first menstruation, when it occurs between 12 and 13 years; however, it may vary according to the lifestyle and background of the women of the family. In the case of children, the main sign that is entering puberty is the first ejaculation, which occurs between the ages of 12 and 13. Find out more about menarche and its main symptoms.
The following table indicates the main corporal changes that can be observed in children and in children in puberty:
|growth of the sinuses||Emergence of pubic hair|
|Emergence of pubic hair and in the armpits||Emergence of hair in the armpits, legs and face|
|Bigger chair||thicker voice|
|tighter waist||Growth and increase in the diameter of the penis|
|Development of sexual organs||Increase in testicle size|
|Uterine size increase||Laryngeal growth, popularly known as “Adán’s manzana”|
Similarly, due to the hormonal changes that accompany puberty, it is also common for both boys and girls to start having a thicker skin, which favors the appearance of acne.
See how much you can get to measure your child in adulthood.
What could accelerate puberty
It is known as accelerated puberty, when this process occurs at 8 and 9 children and 9 and 10 children. Certain factors can favor the growth of the breasts and the maturation of the female sexual organs, such as the increase in the body mass index (BMI), as more fat accumulates in the body, greater is the stimulus for the production of estrogen, which is the hormone responsible for female characteristics. Know more about BMI and how to calculate it.
Despite the fact that many children feel that it is something good for their breasts to grow early, early puberty may represent a risk in children, but it is associated with greater possibilities of developing breast cancer, obesity and type 2 diabetes, apart from related problems. con la salud mental, como ansiedad, for example.
In addition, the frequent exposure to chemical substances present in nail polishes and perfumes, for example, can also favor puberty, because some of its constituents can change the endocrine system and, therefore, the hormonal production, resulting in puberty.
Who can delay puberty
The common alterations of adolescence can occur when the child is present some condition that interferes directly or indirectly with the growth of the gonads or the production of the sexual hormones.
Among the conditions that delay puberty are:
- diabetes mellitus;
- Genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome, for example;
Asimism, autoimmune diseases such as Addison’s disease can delay puberty, since the specific characteristics of each sex are observed later.
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