Heart attack: what is it, symptoms and treatment
Acute myocardial infarction, the heart attack, occurs when lack of blood in the heart causes tissue damage. This situation is known as ischemia and causes symptoms such as pain in the breast that radiates to the arms, in addition to nausea, cold sweating, tiredness, pallor, among others.
Generally, infarction occurs due to the accumulation of fatty plaques inside the coronary arteries, which occurs both due to genetics and risk factors such as smoking, obesity, unbalanced diet and sedentary lifestyle, for example. Its treatment is indicated by the doctor and involves the use of medication to restore the circulation of the heart, such as AAS, and, on occasions, a cardiac surgery.
In the presence of symptoms that indicate a heart attack, which last more than 20 minutes, it is important to go to the emergency room or call an ambulance, as this situation can cause serious cardiac sequelae or even lead to death if not you are served immediately.
To quickly recognize the symptoms of a heart attack, and its particularities in women, young people and adults, know the symptoms of heart attack.
Among the main symptoms of infarction are the following:
- Pain on the left side of the pecho in the form of oppression, or “anguish”, which radiates to the arm or right, to the back, to the back or the jaw in the form of swelling or pain;
- Pallor (white face);
- Cold sweat;
Other previous symptoms that are not classic, but they can also indicate a heart attack in some people, including the following:
- Pain in the stomach, in the form of oppression, the ardor or as if there was a weight on the person;
- Pain in the back;
- Burning sensation in one of the arms or jaw;
- Feeling of gas in the stomach;
- lack of air;
These symptoms usually start gradually and worsen progressively, with a duration of more than 20 minutes. However, in some situations, the heart attack can occur suddenly, with a very rapid seizure, a situation known as a fulminant heart attack. Know what causes and how to identify fulminant infarction.
The diagnosis can be confirmed by the doctor through the clinical history of the patient and exams such as electrocardiogram, levels of cardiac enzymes and catheterization in the hospital environment.
The majority of times, the cause of the heart attack is the blockage of the bleeding stage in the heart due to the accumulation of grease in the arteries; however, it can also occur due to the following factors:
- Stress and irritability;
- smoking habit,
- Use of illicit drugs;
- Excessive cold;
- Excessive pain.
Among the risk factors that increase the probabilities that a person has a heart attack include the following:
- Family history of infarction or heart disease;
- Having previously suffered a heart attack;
- Active or passive smokers;
- high pressure;
- High LDL cholesterol or low HDL cholesterol;
- Sedentary lifestyle;
The family factor, es decir, when an individual has a close relative with heart diseases, such as priest, mother, abuelos or hermanos, is very important and must be kept in mind.
Use the following calculator and know if there is a risk of suffering a heart attack:
The heart attack treatment is carried out in the hospital, with the use of an oxygen mask or even mechanical ventilation, to help the patient breathe more easily; in addition to the administration of various medications prescribed by the doctor, such as antiplatelet agents, aspirin, venous anticoagulants, ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, statins, strong analgesics or nitrates, which act to regulate the flow of blood to the heart.
The purpose of the treatment is to stabilize the condition, reduce the pain, reduce the size of the affected area and reduce the post-infarct complications, and include general care such as rest, intensive monitoring of the illness and the use of medication. It may be necessary to perform an urgent catheterization or angioplasty, depending on the type of infarction. This catheterization identifies the vessel that is obstructed and what will be the final treatment, if an angioplasty or a cardiac surgery for the placement of a bypass.
As the treatment has to be carried out in the hospital, when the first symptoms appear it is important to immediately call an ambulance and, if there is a loss of knowledge, perform a cardiac massage until medical help is available.
The main factors that increase the chances of suffering from cardiovascular diseases, such as stroke or heart attack, are unhealthy lifestyle habits, which are responsible for the accumulation of fat inside the blood vessels. Asimism, to prevent a heart attack, it is necessary to have the following account:
- Maintain an adequate weight, avoiding obesity;
- Practice physical activities regularly, at least 3 times a week;
- Do not smoke;
- Control high blood pressure, with medication prescribed by a doctor;
- Controlling cholesterol, with food or use of medication prescribed by the doctor;
- Treat diabetes correctly;
- Avoid stress and anxiety;
- Avoid excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Likewise, it is recommended to carry out a regular check, at least once a year, with the general physician or the cardiologist, so that the risk factors of a heart attack are detected as soon as possible and the indications to improve health and reduce it are given. risk.
Know the main tasks that can be carried out to evaluate the health of the heart.
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Consult a Doctor | Translated by User2937
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