Hip dysplasia in babies: what is it, how to identify it and treatment
Hip dysplasia in babies, also known as congenital hip dysplasia or hip dysplasia, is an alteration in the baby’s birth with an imperfection in the joint between the femur and the hip’s hueso, which causes the same instability to be present and cause a decrease in the mobility of the lower extremities and alteration in the length of the legs.
This type of dysplasia is more common when there are low levels of amniotic fluid during embarrassment or when the baby remains seated during most of the pregnancy. In addition to this, the position in which the baby is born can also interfere in the development of the articulation, being the most frequent that occurs when the first part of the baby comes out when the nalgas and after the rest of the body.
Since it can affect the baby’s development and make it difficult to walk, the diagnosis by a pediatrician must be carried out as soon as possible so that the treatment is initiated and it is possible to completely cure the dysplasia.
How to identify dysplasia
In many cases, hip dysplasia in babies does not cause any type of visible sign, which is why it is most important to maintain regular consultations with the pediatrician during the birth, so that the doctor will evaluate how the development is progressing. from the baby to lo largo del tiempo, identifying any problem that may arise.
However, there are also babies who can show signs of hip dysplasia, such as:
- Piernas with different longitudes or turned hacia fuera;
- Less mobility and flexibility of one of the legs, which can be observed during the change of country;
- Pliegues in the muslo and in the nalgas of very different sizes;
- Delay in the development of the baby, which affects the way of sitting, holding and walking.
If there is a suspicion of dysplasia, the doctor may request an ultrasound for babies under 6 months of age or an X-ray for babies and toddlers in the hip region to confirm the diagnosis.
How the doctor identifies dysplasia
There are some orthopedic procedures that the pediatrician should perform in the first 3 days after birth, which should also be performed in the consultation of the 8 and 15 days after the birth, these are:
- Barlow’s Pruebawhere the doctor holds the baby’s piernitas together and inflected and pressure from the top with abajo;
- Ortolani’s Prueba, where the doctor supports the baby’s piernitas and checks the amplitude of the movement of opening the chair. The doctor could reach the conclusion that the joint is not perfect if you click during the test or if there is a rebound, which indicates that the joint has been placed in the correct position;
- Prueba de Galeazziin which the doctor places the baby with the legs inflected and the feet supported on the examination table, being able to notice the difference in height of the rodillas.
These questions are carried out until the baby reaches 3 months of age, from here the doctor observes other signs and symptoms such as delay in motor development.
How is the treatment performed?
The treatment for congenital dysplasia of the hip can be carried out using a special type of orthopedic device (harness), the use of a plaster that goes from the chest to the legs or the surgery, and it must always be guided by the pediatrician.
For the general, the treatment chosen according to the age of the baby:
1. Up to 6 months of life
When dysplasia is discovered just after birth, the first treatment option is Pavlik’s harness, which adheres to the piernas and baby’s breast and can be used between 6 to 12 weeks, depending on the baby’s age and the seriousness of the illness. With this harness, the baby’s legs always remain flexed and open, so this position is ideal for the chair’s articulation to unfold normally.
After 2 to 3 weeks of placement of this harness, the baby should be examined so that the doctor can determine if the joint is properly positioned. If not, the harness is removed and a plaster is placed; if the joint is positioned correctly, it must be maintained and used until the child is not subject to change in the chair, which can occur between 1 month or up to 4 months.
These harnesses must be kept all day and all night, and they can be taken off the ground to bathe the baby, and must be placed again at the end. Using Pavlik’s harness does not cause pain and the baby gets used to it every few days, so it is not necessary to remove the harness if the baby is irritated or crying.
2. Between 6 months and 1 year
When the dysplasia is discovered when the baby is more than 3 months old, the treatment can be carried out by manual placement, by the orthopedist, of the articulation in the appropriate place and the use of a plaster just after it to maintain the correct position of the articulation.
This must be maintained for 2 to 3 months and then it is also necessary to use another device, such as the Milgram splint, for 2 or 3 more months. After this period, the child must be evaluated again to determine if the development is taking place correctly; and if not, the doctor can recommend a surgery.
3. After starting to walk
When the diagnosis is carried out later, after the child has started to walk, the treatment will be carried out with surgery. This is because the use of Pavlik’s plaster and harness is not effective after the first year of age.
The local diagnosis of this city is late, and what he calls attention to the priests is that the child cojea, walks alone with the point of the fingers or in the case of using one of the legs. The confirmation is performed by means of an X-ray, magnetic resonance or ultrasound that shows the alterations in the position of the femur in the chair.
Possible complications of dysplasia
When dysplasia is discovered late, months or years after birth, there is a risk of complications, and the most common is that a leg seas more cuts than another, what happens when the child is always there, why It is necessary to use custom-made shoes to try to adjust the height of the legs.
Asimism, the child can develop osteoarthritis in the hip, even in the youth, scoliosis in the spine and suffering pain in the legs, the hip and the back; in addition, he might need the help of crutches to walk, being necessary to have physiotherapy sessions for long periods.
How can it be prevented
The majority of cases of hip dysplasia cannot be avoided, however, in order to reduce the risk after birth, it is necessary to avoid placing clothes that make movement difficult, not keeping it too long, with the legs stretched or pressed una contra la otra, ya that can affect the desarrollo de la cadera.
In addition, it is also necessary to observe the movements and verify if the baby can move the chair and the wheels, this will help to detect changes that must be reported to the pediatrician for the early diagnosis of the problem, in order to initiate the most appropriate treatment and avoid complications .
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