Type 1 diabetes mellitus: what is it, symptoms and treatment
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a type of diabetes in which the pancreas does not produce insulin, as the body is not able to use blood sugar to produce energy, which generates symptoms such as dry mouth, constant thirst and need for ornate to menudo.
Type 1 diabetes may be related to genetic and autoimmune factors, in which the body’s own cells attack the pancreas cells responsible for insulin production. In this way, there is not enough production of this hormone to make the glucose enter the cells, remaining in the blood stream.
The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is common during childhood, and treatment with insulin is immediately initiated to control symptoms and prevent complications. The use of this hormone must be carried out according to the recommendation of the endocrinologist or pediatrician, it is also important that there are changes in the person’s lifestyle.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes arise when the function of the pancreas is very affected, with symptoms related to the increase in the amount of circulating glucose in the blood, which include the following:
- Sensation of constant thirst;
- Frequent desires to urinate;
- Excessive tiredness;
- Appetite increase;
- Loss or difficulty to gain weight;
- Abdominal pain and vomiting;
- Blurred vision.
In the case of children with type 1 diabetes, in addition to these symptoms, they may also experience urinary incontinence during the night, when previously in bed, or recurrent infections of the intimate region.
Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes
The main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is the cause, because type 1 diabetes occurs due to genetic factors, type 2 diabetes is related to the interaction between lifestyle and hereditary factors, arising in people who have an inadequate diet, are obese and do not perform physical activity.
Asimism, as type 1 diabetes presents the destruction of cells in the pancreas by genetic alterations, there is no prevention, and the treatment must be carried out with daily insulin injections to regulate the levels of glucose in the blood. On the other hand, as the development of type 2 diabetes is more related to lifestyle habits, it is possible to avoid this type of diabetes through a balanced and healthy diet and regular physical activity.
The diagnosis of diabetes is carried out by means of blood tests that reduce the level of sugar, and can be requested by the doctor for evaluation in days or after food, for example. Typically, the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is performed when the person starts to present symptoms of the illness, and as it is related to immune alterations, a blood test can be performed to detect the presence of circulating autoantibodies.
Know other differences between the types of diabetes.
How is the treatment performed?
The treatment is carried out with the daily use of insulin in the form of injection of acuerdo with the orientation of the doctor. Likewise, it is suggested to check the glucose concentration before and after the meals, recommending that its concentration before the problems is between 70 and 110 mg/dL and after the problems below 180 mg/dL.
The treatment for type 1 diabetes helps to prevent the appearance of complications such as difficult healing, vision problems, poor blood circulation or kidney failure, for example. See more about treatment for type 1 diabetes.
Also, to complement the treatment of type 1 diabetes, it is important to have a diet that is free or poor in sugar and low in carbohydrates, such as bread, pastries, rice, pasta, galletas and some fruits, for example. Apart from this, it is recommended to practice physical activities, such as walking, running or swimming, at least for 30 minutes, 3 to 4 times a week.
See how diet should be in type 1 diabetes by watching the following video:
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